Part 1: Differentiate between validity and reliability using your own words. You can produce a graphic, illustration, or text to post to the discussion board. Comment on at least 2 posts made by your classmates.
Part 2: Identify 3 strengths and 3 weaknesses of Q-Methodology, and discuss in your initial post. Respond to the prompt and at least 2 of your peer
As cited in the literature this week, organizing the steps to this point of your study is crucial in
determining where (and how) you go from here. Begin to establish a framework of how the
sources you reviewed fit with your purpose in general, and your research questions in particular.
Note how and why the reference material you?ve accumulated relates to each chapter of your
paper. Whether you?re using database software, spreadsheets, Word tables, or even
handwritten note cards, organization of the body of work you?ve assembled is a key factor.
Finalizing your research paper requires a synthesis of many elements. Writing up your research
project is not a simple process, but you can take steps to lighten your load. Organization is one
of those steps.
Mertens, D. M. (2010). Chapter 3: Literature review and focusing the research. In Research and
evaluation in education and psychology. Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and
mixed methods. (3rd ed.) (pp. 89-121). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc
Validity is the idea or concept that a tool or instrument actually measures what it is supposed to
measure. For example, a scale is used to measure someone?s weight. Hence, a scale is a
valid instrument to measure weight. However, the same scale is not a valid instrument to
measure someone?s height. Further, in research there are tools and surveys that measure
certain concepts relating to human beings. In my research project, which is about situation
awareness, there is a tool called SAGAT that is a valid measure for situation awareness and
has been used in multiple studies to measure situation awareness. If one were to use the
SAGAT tool to measure depression in subjects, it would be an invalid instrument because it is
not designed to measure depression.
Reliability is the ability for the instrument or tool to repeat consistently the measure it is taken;
hence it has repeatability. Continuing with the above example, if a person were to get on a
scale five different times in 7 minutes and his readings were as follows, 150, 161, 145, 133, and
141, we would say that the scale has no reliability. Yet it has validity because a scale is a
well-known instrument for measuring weight. If this scale were properly calibrated and the same
experiment was performed with five measurements in 7 minutes and the data were: 150, 151,
149, 151, and 150, then the reliability would be good.
When using Q methodology, there are strengths and weaknesses with the technique. One of
the strengths is that it combines the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research
methods when addressing a phenomenon and the views of the phenomenon are directly from
the subjects. Another strength of this method is that the participants are given more power and
they decide personally what is the most important aspects of a given phenomenon. The
participants more or less through their Q sorts drive the input and the researcher has much less
input value. Finally, utilizing this method allows for researchers and those reviewing the study
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to have direct access into the feelings, attitudes and perceptions of the subjects which can be
very insightful when trying to understand how a phenomenon impacts subjects. It can help to
generate theory and new ideas versus trying to test a hypothesis.
There are some weaknesses to the Q methodology as well. First, when the researcher is
developing the concourse through interviews with people who are involved in the subject to be
studied, this process can be very long and tedious. In order to have a complete understanding
of a subject all avenues of the phenomenon should be investigated and installed into the
concourse. If the researcher in this phase is not thorough and all encompassing, some of the
items for the Q sort may not be included. Second, there was been some concern with the
subjects during the Q sort stage that there is a ?forced choice? required when placing items into
the matrix. This could inhibit or alter the subject?s placement of the statements in places where
they may actually want to place them. Finally, another weakness of the Q methodology is that
there could be researcher bias in the selection and formation of statements that will be used in
the Q sort. While the researcher is getting his initial statements and ideas or concepts from
interviews, his interpretation of these could bias the statements presented to the subjects for the
Karim, K. (2001). Q methodology- Advantages and the disadvantages of this research method.
Journal of Community Nursing, 15(4), 8-12.
Simons, J. (2013). An introduction to Q methodology. Nurse Researcher, 20(3), 28-32.
Trochim, W. M. (2006). Research methods knowledge base. Web Center for Social Research
Methods. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.php
William?s comment to mark:
Mark, very clearly written and explained post. I like your usage of the scale, very practical
example. You spoke of researcher bias, do you feel that can go hand in hand with participant
selection process to gather participants that are like minded or either not as informed in the area
of research to allow for an even great array of bias?
Donna?s comment to mark:
Show entire document Running Head: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability and Validity
Institution of Affiliation 1 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 2 Validity and reliability seem to have similar meaning but… The best way to approach your question… View the full answer