Whether or not an act of plagiarism is intentional or accidental, it can be a serious threat to a students academic integrity. To avoid plagiarism in your scholarly writing, it is important to recognize what it might look like and learn how to use paraphrasing instead. By paraphrasing and correctly citing the original author for his or her ideas, you are able to take the ideas of others, summarize them, and incorporate them into your own thinking. Example 1 Reference: Crossen, C. (1994). Tainted truth: The manipulation of fact in America. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Passage 1: Doctors, whose first allegiance is supposed to be to their patients, have traditionally stood between drug company researchers and trusting consumers. Yet unless there is evidence of misconduct (the deliberate misrepresentation of something as fact by someone who knows it is not), it is very difficult to discover and virtually impossible to prove that a piece of biomedical research has been tainted by conflict of interest. No study is perfect, and problems arise in the labs of even the most conscientious and honest researchers. Although biomedical research incorporates rigorous scientific rules and is often critically scrutinized by peers, the information can nevertheless be warpedby ending a study because the results are disappointing; changing rules mid-study; not trying to publish negative results; publicizing preliminary results even with final and less positive results in hand; skimming over or even not acknowledging drawbacks; and, especially, casting the results in the best light or, as scientists say, buffing them. This next passage was written by a student who wants to use the Crossen resource in a paper and is trying not to plagiarize. Evaluate the students work for evidence of plagiarism and/or paraphrasing. Passage 2: Consumers must trust that the research that has gone into the manufacture of new drugs is safe. But it is hard to know if a conflict of interest between doctors, researchers, and the drug company stockholders has tainted the results. Biomedical researchers incorporate strict rules of science into their work, which is examined by peers. Yet the resulting information can be warped for five reasons: ending a study too soon, not publishing negative results, publishing results too early, skimming over or ignoring drawbacks, and buffing the results by showing them in the best light (Crossen, 1994, p. 167). Example 2 Reference: OConner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobes guide to better English in plain English. New York, NY: Riverhead Books. Passage 1: A good writer is one you can read without breaking a sweat. If you want a workout, you dont lift a bookyou lift weights. Yet were brainwashed to believe that the more brilliant the writer, the tougher the going. The truth is that the reader is always right. Chances are, if something youre reading doesnt make sense, its not your faultits the writers. And if something you write doesnt get your point across, its probably not the readers faultits yours. Too many readers are intimidated and humbled by what they cant understand, and in some cases thats precisely the effect the writer is after. But confusion is not complexity; its just confusion. A venerable tradition, dating back to the ancient Greek orators, teaches that if you dont know what youre talking about, just ratchet up the level of difficulty and no one will ever know. Dont confuse simplicity, though, with simplemindedness. A good writer can express an extremely complicated idea clearly and make the job look effortless. But such simplicity is a difficult thing to achieve because to be clear in your writing you have to be clear in your thinking. This is why the simplest and clearest writing has the greatest power to delight, surprise, inform, and move the reader. You cant have this kind of shared understanding if writer and reader are in an adversary relationship (pp. 195196). This last passage was written by a student who wants to use the OConner resource in a paper and is trying not to plagiarize. Analyze the students work for evidence of plagiarism and/or paraphrasing. Passage 2: Some people think the most intelligent writing should be difficult for readers to comprehend. However, this is a misconception about writing. Complicated sentences create unnecessary confusion and prevent readers from understanding the main ideas. Instead, simple and clear writing helps readers understand even the most difficult concepts. Therefore, writers have an important responsibility to express their thoughts and ideas in a way that is succinct, comprehensible, and engaging. A good writer should be mindful of who the target readers are and then use simple and clear language to communicate ideas (OConner, 2003). By Day 7 Write a 1- to 2-page paper that addresses the following: Explain how you tell a story or paraphrase in your own words and keep its meaning. Explain how personal and cultural views on plagiarism might present challenges. Identify and explain any evidence of plagiarism and/or paraphrasing that is found in the student passages provided. Explain at least two strategies you might use to revise the student passages and avoid plagiarism. Reminder: Proper formatting and APA citations are required. Refer to the Writing Template for Course Papers for additional guidance.