Use words like I agree, id like to add, etc. Any questions please let me know. In addition, the two books used in class to use for reply if needed in a message. ****Utilization of Theories and Conceptual Models in Advanced Practice Nursing**** Natasha Kinne St. Thomas University Theories and conceptual models are used in nursing for research and to further knowledge in the clinical practice. Though there are slight differences between a theory and a conceptual model, they are both important aspects to nursing. Furthermore, both theories and conceptual models can be used in the clinical practice of advanced registered nurse practitioners. Theories can be used in advanced practice nursing. A theory is a set of defined concepts and already existing statements that are used to find the relationship between phenomena (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2018). Theories can be broken down into scientific theories and middle-range theories. Scientific theories involve research studies with results that can be replicated using the same methods every time. However, nursing revolves around middle range theories which are theories that focus on the reasoning behind and implementation of interventions on clinical practice (Gray et al., 2018). These theories are most commonly seen in practice as they are more specific to the interventions that nurses use. An example of this is Watson’s theory of human caring, a very well known theory that is currently used in practice throughout different settings. Humanity, viewing the patient as mind, body, and soul, within nursing care is the main focus of this theory and because of this can be applied to all aspects of nursing including practice, research, and education (Pajnikhar, McKenna, Stiglic, & Vrbnjak, 2017). For example, a study done by Arslan-Ozkan, Okumus, & Buldukoglu (2014) used Watson’s theory of human caring to increase self-efficacy and lower the distress in women who received infertility treatment but were still unable to conceive. This theory is unique to advanced practice nurses as they can use this nursing theory to be able to treat patients through the act of caring for the patient as a whole and not just trying to treat the physical ailment. Conceptual models models can also be applied to advanced practice nursing. A conceptual model aims to explain relevant occurrences specific to a discipline (Gray et al., 2018). Conceptual models are most commonly used in research studies to provide a structure for the design and methods of the study, help to explain the results of the study, and provide direction in formulating hypotheses (Gray et al., 2018). Nursing conceptual models seek to describe the essential components of nursing. An example of this is the Conceptual Model of Nursing and Population Health which has the goal of improving overall population health via nursing interventions that promote health, prevent illness, and reestablish wellness (Fawcett & Ellenbecker, 2015). The impact of this conceptual model on advanced practice nursing is the idea of considering a whole population when providing care and not just an individual. Furthermore, in simply preventing disease, the population becomes healthier which helps lower healthcare costs and improves quality of life. In conclusion, the use of theories and conceptual models can and will eventually lead to more knowledge in nursing practice. An example of a theory is Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, while an example of a conceptual model is the Conceptual Model of Nursing and Population Health, both of which can be applied to advanced practice nursing. Lastly, all of nursing is dependent on theories and conceptual models to be able to provide safe and quality care to individual patients and populations. References Arslan‐Özkan, İ., Okumuş, H. & Buldukoğlu, K. (2014) A randomized controlled trial of the effects of nursing care based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring on distress, self‐efficacy and adjustment in infertile women. Journal of Advanced Nursing 70( 8), 1801– 1812. doi: 10.1111/jan.12338. Fawcett, J., & Ellenbecker, C. (2015). A proposed conceptual model of nursing and population health. Nursing Outlook, 63(3), 288-298. Gray, J., Grove, S. & Sutherland, S. (2018). Burns and Grove’s The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. Pajnkihar, M., Mckenna, H., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). Fit for Practice: Analysis and Evaluation of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(3), 243-252.